This movement has been especially prevalent in pig housing systems where the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus PRRSv has caused significant economic hardship. Building ventilation systems have been retrofitted to incorporate high efficiency filters at fresh-air intakes as a physical capture of the virus. In a negative pressure filtration arrangement, primary MERV 8 and secondary MERV 16 filters are attached in the attic space to the existing fresh-air ceiling intakes as depicted in Figure 8a for an inlet depicted in Figure 4.
This method suffers tremendously from the high infiltration rates common in many HLLP systems [ 10 ]. Virus filtration with a filters attached directly to ceiling fresh-air intakes in a negative pressure system, or b using blowers and c filtration banks in a positive pressure filtration system. In a positive pressure filtered barn, industrial blowers Figure 8b , or equivalent are used to push air through primary and secondary filter banks Figure 8c , maintaining the building operating pressure slightly above ambient, bypassing the infiltration issues common with negative pressure systems.
The major drawback with positive pressure filtered systems is the tendency for moisture laden air to exfiltrate, potentially condensing in the building cavity. In positive pressure systems, care must be taken as well to control exfiltration for this reason. Producers of food animals place animal welfare at the forefront of their operation.
Several building design changes have evolved as a result of public pressure stemming from concerns related to animal welfare. The most prominent changes have been made in pig gestation and egg-laying facilities. Traditional gestation housing uses individual stalls Figure 9a from which precise nutritional needs can be maintained and monitored. Due to public pressure, the traditional stall gestation has given way, in some cases, to group housing gestation facilities, with, in many cases, electronic feed dispensing and pig monitoring Figure 9b.
Unquestionably, the biggest change in HLPP systems has occurred in the egg-laying sector. Many large fast-food chains have demanded bird space allocation changes and overall free-roaming requirements that have significantly changed the hen housing system. The conventional caged-layer system is rapidly being replaced by enriched colony or aviary systems where birds are allowed extensive movement and ample opportunity for perching and nesting behavior.
An excellent overview of the various hen housing systems can be found in [ 12 ]. Specific emphasis was placed on general building characteristics, general ventilation design features, heat stress control, and systems designed to address animal welfare. Significant advances have been made in HLPP systems in response to global food demand and as a matter of efficiency.
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Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Thermal modification for housed livestock and poultry production HLPP systems has evolved from outside raised or uncontrolled naturally ventilated building systems into sophisticated computer-controlled cloud-analyzed complexes in the quest for producing a safe, reliable, sustainable, and efficient protein supply for our ever-growing population.
Keywords livestock poultry heat stress animal welfare ventilation. Introduction Thermal modification for housed livestock and poultry production HLPP systems has evolved from outside raised or uncontrolled naturally ventilated building systems into sophisticated computer-controlled cloud-analyzed complexes in the quest for producing a safe, reliable, sustainable, and efficient protein supply for our ever growing population.
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General thermal modification systems for housed livestock and poultry In the USA, the raising of food animals in controlled climate facilities has progressed rapidly since the s. Structural design basis for the USA HLPP building system The majority of HLPP buildings in the USA are composed of wood-frame construction supplemented with concrete stub walls, polyethylene or equivalent curtain sidewall openings, and light-gauge steel roofing and siding Figure 1a , b.
Heat production of modern food animals Modern genetics has increased the productivity levels of our food animals. Methods to increase animal heat dissipation The typical HLLP system for heat stress control is a tunnel ventilated TV arrangement of fresh air inlets and fans along the long axis of the building Figure 6a or arranged in cross-flow perpendicular to the long axis Figure 6b. HVAC design for virus control Disease transmission from herd-to-herd via aerosol transport is a concern, driving significant HLLP system changes to accommodate new and innovative ventilation designs.
ILRI reported that quality and safety considerations in foods of animal origin provide commercial opportunities for producers, market actors and industry participants of developing-countries. Moreover, Pisulewski also reported that consuming poultry and fish products has no risk of cancers. Furthermore, FAO also reported that the by-products of poultry production are of value if managed and recycled; however, if not managed or recycled properly are of concern. Chicken production and the institutional supports: To stimulate the rural economies, a proactive policy is required Steinfeld on behalf of the private and public sectors of the livestock production.
However, there are no specific governance structures that established in Ethiopia for domestic production and marketing Ayele and Rich, As to Muchenje et al. According to the Adebayo and Adeola reports from Nigeria, gaps of poultry production need to be filled by the research and extension institutions to boosting egg and meat production. Sustainable cost effective interventions by the stakeholders are necessary to utilize local chicken potentials in Kenya Njue et al. Sonaiya and Swan reported also that research and development institution must examine the social, cultural and technical constraints of family poultry.
According to Muchenje et al. As Rodic et al. Poultry production has been given little attention by the research and development institutions in developing countries Kryger et al. Biotechnology and production of foods of animal origin: Biotechnology in animal production has been advancing FAO, Montaldo reported also that biotechnology is used to increase disease resistance, productivity and product quality in the economically important animals. Moreover, Chen reported that biotechnology will play critical role in the future in improving animal productivity.
As to Peric et al.
Since, adoption of animal biotechnology will results in a distinct benefits in prosperity, food security, rural development, animal improvement and economic returns to resource-poor farmers Aboul-Naga and Elbeltagy, ; Chen, , Aboul-Naga and Elbeltagy advised to enhancing animal productivity and the sustainability through research focused applications of animal biotechnologies and their objectives. Advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from skeletal muscle cells, cultured from stem cells, outside the animal in a bioreactor Haagsman et al.
According to some reports, biotechnology has the potential to improve the productivity of animals via increase growth, carcass quality and reproduction, improved nutrition and feed utilization , improved quality and safety of food. However, Aboul-Naga and Elbeltagy reported that major constraints for applying animal biotechnologies, in near East and North African countries were summarized as: negligible investment in modern animal biotechnology. Thus, Aboul-Naga and Elbeltagy reported that Adoption of animal biotechnology will resulted in distinct benefits in prosperity, food security, rural development, animal improvement and economic returns to resource-poor farmers.
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- INFLUENCE OF METHODOLOGY ON THE RECOVERY OF?
In some developing countries , chicken production has been the fastest growing sector than any animal farming that to supplying quality protein foods; however, the sector still is facing problems of feed-food competition and dependency for importation of improved breeds. The advantage of socioeconomics of poultry productions is well documented in terms of family participation, easiness, nutritional value s and environmental friendly but, development is lagging behind for sub-Saharan countries.
Moreover, a main cost of poultry production is a concentrated feeds; hence, this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition, particularly for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Therefore, alternative feed resource should be properly utilized and the poor feeds also be improved by technologies for exclusive utilization. Some local poultry feed resources needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional value s that to be used as an alternative feed source. Therefore, modern technologies such as solid state fermentation complex enzyme systems and others must be increasingly important in order to cope up with market shocks.
To coping up with the two controversial issues of the high demands of the foods of animal origin and feed-food competition, restructured policy is required that regulates institution integrity. Use of biotechnology in animal production has been advancing that quickly improving productivity and feed utilization.
Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from skeletal muscle-cells, cultured from stem cells, outside the animals. Therefore, policy makers need to facilitate its applicability in the future.
Modern livestock and poultry production (Book, ) [osspatciethic.tk]
Abdullah, R. Wan Embong and H. Soh, Biotechnology in animal production in developing countries. Aboul-Naga, A. Elbeltagy, Adebayo, O. Adeola, Socio-economics factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo local government area of Osun State.
Nigerian indigenous chicken: A valuable genetic resource for meat and egg production. Asian J. Rich, Brenes, A. Guenter, R. Marquardt and B. Rotter, Ward, The role of vitamins and feed enzymes in combating metabolic challenges and disorders. Applied Poult. Future trends and developments in poultry nutrition. Chadd, S.